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Capital Investment Decisions

Capital investment decisions are long-term corporate finance decisions relating to fixed assets and capital structure. Decisions are based on several inter-related criteria. Corporate management seeks to maximize the value of the firm by investing in projects which yield a positive net present value when valued using an appropriate discount rate in consideration of risk. These projects must also be financed appropriately. If no such opportunities exist, maximizing shareholder value dictates that management must return excess cash to shareholders (i.e., distribution via dividends ). Capital investment decisions thus comprise an investment decision, a financing decision, and a dividend decision.

Functions of Financial Management

  1. Estimation of capital requirements: A finance manager has to make estimation with regards to capital requirements of the company. This will depend upon expected costs and profits and future programmes and policies of a concern. Estimations have to be made in an adequate manner which increases earning capacity of enterprise.
  2. Determination of capital composition: Once the estimation have been made, the capital structure have to be decided. This involves short- term and long- term debt equity analysis. This will depend upon the proportion of equity capital a company is possessing and additional funds which have to be raised from outside parties.
  3. Choice of sources of funds: For additional funds to be procured, a company has many choices like-
    1. Issue of shares and debentures
    2. Loans to be taken from banks and financial institutions
    3. Public deposits to be drawn like in form of bonds.

    Choice of factor will depend on relative merits and demerits of each source and period of financing.

  4. Investment of funds: The finance manager has to decide to allocate funds into profitable ventures so that there is safety on investment and regular returns is possible.
  5. Disposal of surplus: The net profits decision have to be made by the finance manager. This can be done in two ways:
    1. Dividend declaration – It includes identifying the rate of dividends and other benefits like bonus.
    2. Retained profits – The volume has to be decided which will depend upon expansional, innovational, diversification plans of the company.
  6. Management of cash: Finance manager has to make decisions with regards to cash management. Cash is required for many purposes like payment of wages and salaries, payment of electricity and water bills, payment to creditors, meeting current liabilities, maintainance of enough stock, purchase of raw materials, etc.
  7. Financial controls: The finance manager has not only to plan, procure and utilize the funds but he also has to exercise control over finances. This can be done through many techniques like ratio analysis, financial forecasting, cost and profit control, etc.
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